NHS in the frame

A guest post by Katy Canales, Acting Curator, V&A Museum of Childhood

The V&A Museum of Childhood’s collection of children’s spectacles spans over 200 years. Their innovative and creative designs incorporate the technological and societal developments during this period, from the start of industrial-scale manufacturing to the founding of the National Health Service (NHS).

The earliest pair in the collection is an adjustable, wire framed set, hand-made in London, which date from around [?] 1800. In contrast, the most recent pair is a plastic, replica set from a Harry Potter fancy dress costume, mass produced in China from 2001-2 (fig.1). Despite the differences in date, production and purpose, they are strikingly similar in appearance with simple monotone frames, hinged legs and small round lenses. Other glasses which shares these features date from 1939, and were worn by Bruce Angus Ogilvie from Dundee (fig.2). Their adaptive, bendy design meant that they could be worn without snapping, under a gas mask during the Second World War (1939-45).

Figure 1. Harry potter costume, about 2011-2. Museum no. B.31-2003

Figure 2. Spectacles and case; about 1939. Museum no. B.93-2014

By far the most prevalent pairs of glasses within our collection are the National Health Service’s (NHS) ‘C524 and C525 frames’ (fig.3). These popular frames were issued for free to children between 1948-1986. Just like the adult ‘525 frames’, these frames have a slightly winged top, a keyhole-shaped bridge, clear acetate pads, and the hinged sides are reinforced with a metal core. One point of difference in the design of the children’s spectacles is that the legs curved inwards and the feet were made to be circled around the child’s ears, in a bid to keep the spectacles from sliding off during play (fig.3). Made to last, these spectacles were available in a limited spectrum of robust, coloured cellulose acetate, with colours including ice blue, crystal, flesh, light brown mottle, dark brown mottle, and black.

Figure 3. Child’s spectacle Frames; British, 1960-69. Museum no. B.306-1996

The V&A Museum of Childhood also holds in its collection three templates, or jigs, which were used by opticians from the 1960s to make these now iconic glasses (fig. 4-6). These jigs, plus three pairs of early NHS children’s glasses, have recently gone on public display at Design Society, in the Shekou district in Shenzhen, China, as an example of how British design responded to mass health issues. Design Society is a world class cultural institution designed by Fumihiko Maki, and is the creative collaboration between the China Merchants Shekou and the V&A Museum.

To find out more about the V&A Museum of Childhood please visit: https://www.vam.ac.uk/moc/collections/ or discover more about the Museum’s objects here

 

Figure 4. Template for making child’s spectacles; British, 1960-85. Museum no. B.314-1996

 

Figure 5. Template for making child’s spectacles; British, 1960-85. Museum no. B.315-1996

Figure 6. Template (JIG) for making child’s spectacles; British, 1960-85. Museum no. B.316-1996

Edinburgh Roadshow, 8 January 2018

The People’s History of the NHS project joined forces with Edinburgh Central Library and the Lothian Health Archives for our first roadshow in Scotland.  The project brought some of our own objects – historic pamphlets, badges, glasses, stickers, surveys – to jog some memories, and sent out a call for members of the public to bring their own potential contributions to our virtual Museum of the NHS. Despite the unpromising timing (a workday afternoon in January), we had plenty of people through the door and lots of really engaging discussion about the history of the NHS. More evidence of the resonance this history for the wider public across the UK’s four nations.

Particularly noticeable was the high proportion of visitors who had some background working in the National Health Service.  A number of former nurses came and shared memories of the old Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, whose turreted Nightingale Wards remain a distinctive presence in the city centre. The Lothian Health Archives brought with them original 1879 plans for what was Britain’s largest voluntary hospital, as well as reproductions of plans for the various expansions and adaptations that took place throughout the 20th Century. The eagerness of visitors to share experiences of this institution were a firm reminder of the central role that hospitals have in how we remember and imagine our cities. In nationalising older hospitals, the NHS always took on a civic identity as much as a national one.

Other attendees brought historical materials. These included an NHS procurement professional who brought documentation relating to the buying of wigs in the 1980s.

NHS Wig Catalogue, 1980s

Prior to that decade, the Scottish NHS had bought its wigs on an ad-hoc basis. These documents were evidence of how supplying this huge organisation had only been done systematically relatively late in its history, with personal contacts and historic relationships the dominant theme before then. As new methods of organisation came into being, NHS professionals often had to learn new skills fast, as new career tracks were invented by a constantly changing NHS. With the advance of outsourcing and the internal market differences between Scotland and England emerged, with the NHS north of the border retaining more direct control over these sorts of issues.

Other memories we heard were of a more personal nature. Several women came to tell us about their experiences of strict discipline in Edinburgh’s nursing homes back in the 1970s.

Edinburgh Royal Infirmary badge

Nurses in training lived under authoritarian conditions in the early years of the NHS, with curfews, bans on smoking, male company and room inspection common. Although many hospitals loosened this kind of discipline in the 1960s, not all of them did. Our interviewees told us tales of sneaking boyfriends into the nursing homes past the watchful eyes of their matron. Although the all-powerful matron is often remembering nostalgically in Britain, at the time they could be a controlling presence for young women trying to exert their own autonomy.

Roadshow crowds

The Edinburgh Roadshow brought to life just how central place, in terms of the nurses’ home, hospital, the city and the nation, can be in memories of the NHS.